Riverside Division

LAUC-Riverside

Bylaws


Revised April 2003

ARTICLE I. Name

The Librarians Association of the University of California (LAUC) and its divisions, including the Librarians Association of the University of California, Riverside (LAUC-R) are established, by authority of the President of the University, and are recognized as official units of the University.

ARTICLE II. Divisional Objectives

Section 1. To create a forum where matters of concern to librarians in the University of California, Riverside may be considered, and to advise the Chancellor and the Library administration on such matters, including collections, library services, operations and policies, except as prohibited under Section 5 of this Article.

Section 2. To recommend professional standards for the rights, privileges and obligations of librarians at the University of California, Riverside, and to consult with and advise the Chancellor, or the Chancellor's designated representatives, concerning the maintenance of these rights, privileges and obligations, except as prohibited under Section 5 of this article.

Section 3. To promote the full utilization of the professional abilities, interests and skills of librarians, and to improve library services and collections, at the University of California, Riverside.

Section 4. To participate in LAUC and maintain liaison with librarians of the other campuses of the University of California.

Section 5. LAUC-R shall not advise the Chancellor, nor the Chancellor's representatives, nor the Library administration with respect to matters covered by a memorandum of understanding (MOU) or otherwise subject to negotation between the University and any exclusive bargaining agent.

ARTICLE III. Membership

Section 1. The membership of LAUC-R shall consist of all persons in the University of California, Riverside holding appointment half-time or more in the Librarian Series, or in any of the following titles: University Librarian, Associate University Librarian, Assistant University Librarian or in the same titles in an acting capacity.

Section 2. All members shall be eligible to vote, hold office, serve on committees and serve as representatives to the LAUC Assembly, except as provided in Article XI.

Section 3. Persons employed as librarians in the University of California, Riverside on less than half-time appointments and retired LAUC-R members shall have affiliate membership. Affiliate members may participate in general meetings of LAUC-R, but may not make motions, nominate candidates, become officers, serve on committees, be eligible for research and professional development funds, or vote.

ARTICLE IV. Officers

Section 1. The officers shall be chosen from the full voting membership of LAUC-R.

Section 2. The officers of LAUC-R shall be the Chair, Vice- Chair/Chair-Elect, Secretary/Treasurer, Delegate(s) and Alternate Delegates(s). The number of Delegates is prescribed in the LAUC Bylaws, revised March 1, 1993, Article VII, Section 2 (c), and the number of Alternate Delegates shall be the same as the number of Delegates.

Section 3. The terms of office shall be one year, commencing September 1.

Section 4. In the event of a vacancy in the office of the Chair, the Vice-Chair/Chair-Elect shall serve as Chair for the remainder of the term.

          a. If the vacancy occurs before March 1, a special election 
             shall be held as soon as possible to elect a Vice-Chair/Chair-
             Elect for the remainder of the term.

          b. If the vacancy occurs on or after March 1, the 
             new Chair shall remain in that office through the following term as well 
             as the remainder of the present term, and regular elections shall be 
             held for the following term for the offices of Secretary/Treasurer and 
             Delegates only.
Section 5. In the event of a vacancy in the office of Vice- Chair/Chair-Elect, a special election shall be held as soon as possible to fill the office for the remainder of the term.

Section 6. In the event of a vacancy in the office of Secretary/Treasurer, Delegate(s) or Alternate Delegate(s), a member of LAUC-R shall be appointed by the Chair to fill the office pro tem for the remainder of the term. The appointment of this pro tem officer shall become effective as soon as it has been confirmed by the Executive Board and the new officer is notified in writing.

Section 7. The duties of the Chair shall be as follows:

          a.  determine the will of the membership and to 
              act in accordance with that will.
 
          b. To expedite the business of LAUC-R in a manner 
             consistent with the best interests of the membership.
 
          c. To represent LAUC-R to, and maintain active 
             communication with, the administrations of the University, the campus 
             and the UCR Library and any other appropriate organizations or agencies.  
             If the Chair is unable to represent and speak for LAUC-R because of 
             absence or a conflict of interest, the Chair shall appoint a member of 
             the Executive Board to do so.
 
          d. To report to the membership regularly.
 
          e. To preside over meetings of the LAUC-R membership and 
             of its Executive Board.
 
          f. To appoint the chairs of standing and ad hoc committees 
             of LAUC-R, direct charges to these committees and ensure that 
             the committee reports and recommendations are referred to the LAUC-R 
             Executive Board and membership, and relevant decisions of LAUC-R to the 
             LAUC President and/or the chair of the related LAUC committee, for 
             appropriate consideration and action.
 
          g. To bring to the attention of the LAUC-R 
             membership, the LAUC-R Executive Board and LAUC any matters which may 
             require a response to LAUC or which may be of concern to LAUC.
 
          h. To report regularly to the membership discussions, decisions 
             and all important information and documents emanating from the LAUC Assembly
             and Executive Board and from the LAUC-R Executive Board.
 
          i. To represent LAUC-R on the Executive Board of 
             LAUC, and at meetings of its Assembly.
 
          j. To submit to the LAUC President by September 1, 
             for terms beginning October 1, recommendations for LAUC-R representation 
             on those LAUC committees for which LAUC-R is eligible, and for any other 
             appointment for which the LAUC President requests a recommendation.

          k. To deposit appropriate records in the LAUC-R Archives.
Section 8. The duties of the Vice-Chair/Chair-Elect shall be as follows:
          a. To assume the duties of the Chair in the Chair's 
             absence or incapacity.

          b. To serve as a member of the Executive Board.

          c. To serve as Chair of the Committee on Personnel.

          d. To meet with each new member upon the member's 
             arrival to discuss the peer review process and procedures, the functions 
             of the Chancellor's Advisory Committee on the Librarian Series (CACLS) 
             and the purposes and objectives of LAUC and LAUC-R.

          e. To perform such other duties as are assigned by 
             the Chair.
Section 9. The duties of the Secretary/Treasurer shall be as follows:
          a. To serve as a member of the Executive Board.

          b. To take the minutes of the Executive Board meetings.

          c. To compile the agenda and distribute it to the 
             membership in advance of each LAUC-R meeting, take minutes of the 
             meetings, maintain the minutes after they have been approved and 
             distribute them as directed by the Chair.

          d. To maintain records of the LAUC-R minutes and 
             handle correspondence and publicity.

          e. To prepare and distribute budget information and 
             disburse funds as directed by the Chair.

          f. To assist the Committee on Committees, Rules, 
             Jurisdiction and Elections in conducting the election of officers, as 
             specified in Article VI; the election of CACLS, as specified in Article 
             XI; and all other elections, as follows:

               1)	To prepare and distribute the ballot

               2)	To convey in person to the Chair of the Committee on 
                  Committees, Rules, Jurisdiction and Elections all ballots within five 
                  working days of the conclusion of each election; and

               3)	To notify the Chair of the results upon receipt of the 
                  report of the Committee on Committees, Rules, Jurisdiction and Elections.

          g. To submit to the LAUC Secretary and to each 
             divisional secretary a copy of the minutes of all LAUC-R meetings and of 
             the UCR Library's newsletter.

          h. To submit to the LAUC President and Secretary by 
             September 1 the roster of the LAUC-R officers, and at any time to notify 
             them without delay of changes in  these offices.

          i. To submit to the LAUC Secretary the results of 
             the election by LAUC-R of the LAUC officers, within ten days of such election.

          j. To make available to the LAUC-R membership minutes of meetings 
             of the LAUC assembly.
Section 10. The duties of the Delegate(s) and Alternate Delegate(s) shall be as follows:
          a. To serve as a member of the Executive Board.

          b. To vote and represent LAUC-R at the LAUC Assembly meetings.

          c. In the absence of the Delegate(s), the Alternate Delegate(s) 
             vote(s) and represent(s) LAUC-R at the LAUC Assembly meetings.
ARTICLE V. Executive Board

Section 1. The Executive Board shall consist of the Chair, Vice- Chair/Chair-Elect, Secretary/Treasurer, Delegate(s) and Alternate Delegate(s).

Section 2. The Immediate Past Chair and all members of LAUC-R currently serving as LAUC officers shall be ex-officio members of the Executive Board.

Section 3. The Executive Board shall advise the Chair as to the will of the membership.

Section 4. The Executive Board shall perform the functions of LAUC-R during the intervals between meetings of the membership whenever a majority of the Executive Board agrees that action cannot be postponed.

Section 5. By September 1 the Chair, in consultation with the Executive Board, shall recommend members to represent LAUC-R on those LAUC committees for which LAUC-R is eligible, and for any other appointment for which the LAUC President requests a recommendation. If a member is unable to continue serving in such a capacity, a new recommendation for the remainder of the term shall be made.

Section 6. The Executive Board shall adopt special and/or standing rules to govern its procedures.

ARTICLE VI. Election of Officers

Section 1. Election of officers of LAUC-R shall be held annually.

Section 2. The election shall be held not later than June 30 and shall be conducted by secret mail ballot utilizing the Preferential Ballot system.

Section 3. Candidates for office shall be nominated by an ad hoc Nominating Committee appointed in March by the Chair in consultation with the Executive Board. Nominations may also be made by the membership to the Nominating Committee, and from the floor during a membership meeting.

Section 4. Elections for Delegate are based on the number of Delegates (in addition to the Chair or his/her alternate) allowed LAUC-R by the LAUC Bylaws (Article VII, Section 2.c.).

          a. In those years in which the size of LAUC-R allows for only 
             one Delegate, the candidate receiving the most votes will be declared 
             Delegate.  The candidate receiving the next highest number of votes will 
             be declared Alternate Delegate.

          b. In those years in which the size of LAUC-R 
             allows for two delegates, the Vice Chair-Chair Elect will serve as one 
             delegate.  In the election for the Delegate position, the candidate 
             receiving the most votes will be declared Delegate.  The candidate 
             receiving the next highest number of votes will be declared Alternate 
             Delegate.

          c. If absences mandate one or more additional 
             alternates for an Assembly, the Chair will appoint such from the 
             Executive Board or the membership.
ARTICLE VII. Membership Meetings

Section 1. Meetings shall be held at least once per quarter.

Section 2. A majority of the membership shall constitute a quorum.

ARTICLE VIII. Parliamentary Authority

The current edition of Sturgis, Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure shall govern LAUC-R in all parliamentary situations that are not provided for in its Bylaws or adopted rules.

ARTICLE IX. Parliamentarian, Alternate Parliamentarian

Section 1. Duties

          a. To advise the Chair, The Executive Board, 
             standing and ad hoc committees and members on questions of parliamentary 
             procedure.

          b. The Parliamentarian shall attend all membership meetings.
Section 2. Appointment
				
          a. The Parliamentarian shall be appointed by the Chair from the
             membership.
				
          b. The appointment is subject to confirmation by the membership.
				
          c. Appointment shall be concurrent with the term of the Executive Board.
				
          d. The Parliamentarian shall not be a member of the Executive Board.
Section 3. An Alternate Parliamentarian shall also be appointed in accordance with all of the aforestated provisions, to serve in the absence of the Parliamentarian.

ARTICLE X. Committees

Section 1. Standing Committees

          a. The following standing committees shall be established:

               1) Committee on Committees, Rules, Jurisdiction and Elections

               2) Committee on Library Plans and Policies

               3) Committee on Personnel

               4) Committee on Professional Governance

               5) Committee on Professional Development

               6) Committee on Programs
  
               7) Committee on Research

          b. Duties of standing committees
					
               1) At the request of the Chair, to consider and develop 
                  recommendations upon matters implied in the committee's name, and to 
                  report directly to the Chair.

               2) To submit a written annual report to the Chair by 
                  September 1.
					
               3) If the committee is concerned with matters 
                  of more than local interest, to maintain liaison with the related LAUC 
                  committee, and to send copies of all substantive reports to the Chair of 
                  the related LAUC committee and to the President of LAUC.

          c. Membership of standing committees
					
               1) The LAUC-R Chair shall appoint the chair 
                  of each standing committee with the exception of the Committee on 
                  Personnel (Article IV, Section 8, c.).

               2) Each committee chair shall select 
                  prospective committee members whose appointments to the committee shall 
                  be confirmed by a majority vote at a LAUC-R meeting.

               3) The term of office of members of standing 
                  committees coincides with that of the Executive Board, i.e., 
                  September 1 - August 31.

               4) In the case of the Committee on 
                  Committees, Rules, Jurisdiction and Elections, the committee shall 
                  consist of three members including the committee chair, plus an 
                  alternate member who shall also be selected by the committee chair and 
                  confirmed by the membership.  The alternate shall not sit on  the 
                  committee when it is selecting the CACLS slate or counting ballots, 
                  except to replace a regular member.  No member of the committee shall be 
                  nominated for CACLS.

               5) Each LAUC-R representative to the following LAUC Committees

			     Committee on Committees
			     Committee on Library Plans and Policies
			     Committee on Professional Governance
			     Committee on Research and Professional Development

                  shall simultaneously be a member of the corresponding LAUC-R Committee.

          d. committee quorum shall consist of fifty-one 
             percent  (51%) of the members of the committee, except as stipulated in 
             Article X, Section 1,e,1)a).

          e. Permanent charges to standing committees

               1) Committee on Committees, Rules, Jurisdiction and Elections		

                    a) To nominate a slate of candidates to serve on CACLS 
                       for presentation to the membership by June 15.  The full membership of the 
                       committee shall be in attendance for this purpose.  If a committee member 
                       is unable to be present, the alternate shall serve; or if that is impossible, 
                       the LAUC-R Chair shall appoint a member pro tem.

                    b) To review the Bylaws of LAUC-R annually or at the 
                       special request of the LAUC-R Chair, to assure that they are consistent 
                       with the LAUC Bylaws and effectively meet LAUC-R needs.

                    c) To review all proposed amendments to 
                       the LAUC-R Bylaws to determine their appropriateness, and report its 
                       recommendations to the LAUC-R Chair and the Executive Board.

                    d) To count the ballots in all 
                       elections and report the results to the Secretary within five working 
                       days after receipt of the ballots.  The full membership of the committee 
                       shall be in attendance at the time of the counting of the ballots.  If a 
                       committee member is unable to be present, or a conflict of interest 
                       arises when a member is a candidate on the ballot to be counted, the 
                       alternate shall serve; or if that is impossible, the LAUC-R Chair shall 
                       appoint a member pro tem.

               2) Committee on Library Plans and Policies

                    a) To serve as the major advisory body to the LAUC-R 
                       Chair and the Executive Board, as requested, on all issues concerning 
                       library planning and policies, both local and systemwide.

                    b) To address other concerns and develop recommendations 
                       as appropriate.


               3) Committee on Personnel

                    a) The Committee Chair receives the 
                       final draft of each librarian position announcement from the LAUC-R 
                       Chair.

                    b) The Committee shall have a maximum of five working days to:

                         1. review the overall contents of the documents;

                         2. evaluate the job duties for appropriate rank; and

                         3. evaluate the qualifications stated in terms of the 
                            job duties.

                         4. submit its recommendations and comments to the 
                            LAUC-R Chair, who shall convey them to the appropriate UCR 
                            Library administrator.

                    c) The Committee Chair meets with new members upon arrival 
                       to discuss the peer review process and procedures, the function of CACLS and 
                       the purposes and functions of LAUC and LAUC-R.

                    d) To address other matters at the request of the LAUC-R 
                       Chair and consider and develop recommendations concerning personnel matters 
                       as appropriate, except those referred to in Article II, Section 5 of these Bylaws.

               4) Committee on Professional Governance

                    a) To serve as the major advisory body to the LAUC-R Chair
                       on issues concerning revisions of the Academic Personnel Manual (APM) affecting 
                       librarians, peer review and other professional governance issues,

                    b) To address other concerns at the 
                       request of the LAUC-R Chair and consider and develop recommendations on 
                       matters of professional governance as appropriate.

               5) Committee on Professional Development

                    a) To monitor the professional development budget.

                    b) To make recommendations on the funding of the 
                       professional development requests of LAUC-R members.

                    c) To address other concerns at the request of the 
                       Chair and consider and develop recommendations on matters of professional 
                       development as appropriate.

               6) Committee on Programs

                    To plan, sponsor and present programs of interest 
                    to librarians.

               7) Committee on Research

                    a) To assist in the preparation of research proposals 
                       submitted by LAUC-R members.

                    b) To review research proposals submitted by LAUC-R members 
                       to the University-wide Research Grants for Librarians Program, and to the LAUC-R 
                       Research Program.

                    c) To recommend consideration of proposals to the LAUC Research 
                       and Professional Development Committee.

                    d) To approve and award funds to proposals submitted to the 
                       LAUC-R Research Program.

                    e) To be responsible for the research 
                       and career development calendar and for developing, monitoring and 
                       revising, as needed, procedures for carrying out the review of the 
                       research proposals of LAUC-R members at the LAUC and LAUC-R level, 
                       according to guidelines established by the LAUC Research and 
                       Professional Development Committee  and the LAUC-R Research Committee.

                    f) To advise the LAUC-R Chair on issues 
                       related to research by librarians and address other concerns at the 
                       request of the Chair and consider and develop recommendations as 
                       appropriate.

               8) Committee on Cultural Diversity

                    a) To serve as the major advisory body to the 
                       LAUC-R chair and Executive Board, as requested, on issues and 
                       initiatives of cultural diversity, both local and systemwide.  

                    b) To consider and develop recommendations and 
                       implementation strategies on matters and initiatives of cultural 
                       diversity, both local and systemwide in cooperation with the 
                       LAUC Committee on Cultural Diversity.

                    c) To address other subjects at the request 
                       of the LAUC-R chair on matters of cultural diversity in the 
                       University of California, Riverside library.
Section 2. Ad Hoc Committees.
          a. Duties of ad hoc committees

               1) At the request of the LAUC-R Chair, to 
                  consider and develop recommendations upon matters implied in the 
                  committee's name, and to report directly to the LAUC-R Chair.

               2) Committees concerned with matters of more 
                  than local interest shall send copies of all  substantive reports the 
                  LAUC President.

          b. Membership of ad hoc committees

               1) The LAUC-R Chair shall appoint the chair and members
                  of all ad hoc committees.

               2) The term of office of members of ad hoc committees 
                  varies according to the charge of the committee.

          c. A committee quorum shall consist of fifty-one percent (51%) 
             of the members of the committee.

ARTICLE XI. The Chancellor's Advisory Committee on the Librarian Series (CACLS)

Section 1. CACLS shall make recommendation to the Chancellor, or the Chancellor's designee, on all personnel actions in the Librarian Series and in the Associate University Librarian and Assistant University Librarian Series, taking into full consideration all documents compiled in such actions.

Section 2. CACLS shall consist of three members and two alternates. The term of the members shall be three years, and the senior member in regard to time served on the Committee shall be its Chair. The term of the alternates shall be one year. All terms shall begin on September 1.

Section 3. All members of the Librarian Series shall be eligible to be nominated to CACLS except members of the Committee on Committees, Rules, Jurisdiction and Elections; current members of CACLS; anyone serving as an alternate member of CACLS for the third successive year; and those lacking career status.

Section 4. CACLS is elected by LAUC-R. Elections shall be conducted by the Committee on Committees, Rules, Jurisdiction and Elections, which shall nominate five candidates and report the nominations to the membership and to the LAUC-R Secretary, who shall distribute ballots to the membership. The nominations presented shall not be added to, the consent of the nominees is not required and no write-in votes will be ackowledged as valid. Only members of the Librarian Series are eligible to vote for CACLS members.

Section 5. The election shall be conducted utilizing the Preferential Ballot system according to the procedures set forth in the Appendix to these Bylaws. The first person elected shall become a full member of CACLS, the second to be elected shall become the first alternate and the third to be elected shall become the second alternate.

Section 6. The ballots shall be returned to the Chair of the Committee on Committees, Rules, Jurisdiction and Elections by June 15. The Committee on Committees, Rules, Jurisdiction and Elections shall count the votes and report the results to the LAUC-R Chair. The Chair shall, thereafter, notify the membership and the Chancellor, or the Chancellor's designee, before June 30.

Section 7. When any vacancy occurs among the full members of CACLS, the alternates shall move up accordingly, i.e.,:

          a. When there is one vacancy the first Alternate 
             shall become a full member and the Second Alternate shall become the 
             First Alternate for the remainder of the term, and an election shall be 
             held as soon as possible to fill the position of Second Alternate.

          b. When there are two vacancies the First and 
             Second Alternates shall become  full members for the remainder of the 
             term, and an election shall be held as soon as possible to fill the 
             positions of the alternates.

          c. The election to fill the position(s) of the 
             alternate(s) shall be conducted by preferential ballot and shall follow 
             the requirements of Sections 3-6 of this article, except that only three 
             candidates shall be nominated when there is one vacancy, or four 
             candidates when there are two vacancies.  The successful candidate(s) 
             shall serve only for the remainder of the current term.  At the 
             following regular election two or three full members of CACLS shall be 
             elected for the following term.

ARTICLE XII. LAUC-R Archives

Section 1. The LAUC-R Archives shall be housed in the Special Collections Department of the University Library, Riverside.

Section 2. LAUC-R shall make provision for the maintenance of the archives.

Section 3. The outgoing LAUC-R Chair, in coordination with the Secretary/Treasurer, shall determine which records will be deposited in the Archives.

ARTICLE XIII. Amendments

Section 1. Any member of LAUC-R may propose amendments to these Bylaws.

Section 2. The Committee on Committees, Rules, Jurisdiction and Elections shall review all proposed amendments to determine their appropriateness and shall report its recommendations to the Chair and the Executive Board.

Section 3. Each amendment proposed and recommended by the Executive Board shall be discussed at a membership meeting before being submitted to the membership on a ballot.

Section 4. An amendment rejected by the Executive Board may be placed directly on a ballot if a petition requesting its adoption is signed by twenty-five percent (25%) of the membership and submitted to the LAUC-R Chair.

Section 5. Voting on amendments shall be done on the annual ballot or by means of a special mail ballot.

Section 6. An amendment shall be considered adopted if approved by a majority of the valid votes cast.

Section 7. These Bylaws and all amendments thereto shall be subject to the approval of LAUC.

APPENDIX  --  THE PREFERENTIAL BALLOT
	(arranged from Australian Systems of Voting, by E.D. Senior. 
	Sydney, Current Book Distributors, 1946)

     The Preferential Ballot, which was introduced in Australia in 1907  and 
is still widely used in that country, has the same effect as a 
succession of ballots, and ensures, in an election with several 
contestants, that the successful candidate(s) will be acceptable to a 
majority of the voters.

A.	To determine the first (or only) successful candidate:

     1. The voter records a vote by placing the number "1" in the 
square opposite the name of the candidate for whom the voter desires to 
give a first preference vote, and records contingent votes for the 
remaining candidates by placing the numbers "2", "3", "4" and so on 
respectively opposite their names in order to indicate by numerical 
sequence the order of preference for them.

     2. When counting the ballots, the election committee places 
them in piles according to the voters' first preferences.  A candidate 
who has received a number of first preference votes greater than half 
the number of valid ballots is thereupon declared elected.

     3. If no candidate has received an absolute majority of first 
preference votes, the candidate who has received the fewest first 
preference votes* is excluded, and each ballot counted to that candidate 
is redistributed and counted to, and placed on the pile of, the 
candidate next in order of the voter's preference, i.e. the number 2 
vote.  (Note that a second preference on a redistributed ballot has the 
same value as each remaining unexcluded first preference.)

     4. Then if no candidate has an absolute majority of votes, the 
process is repeated by excluding the candidate who now has the fewest 
votes,* and counting each of that candidate's ballots to the unexcluded 
candidate next in order of the voters' preference, and so on until one 
candidate has received an absolute majority of votes** and is elected.

B.	To determine other successful candidates:

     1. After the first candidate has been elected, all of the 
ballots are rearranged in piles under the names of the respective 
candidates in accordance with the first preference votes indicated 
thereon.

     2. Then each ballot on which a first preference is indicated 
for the elected candidate is tranferred to the pile of the candidate 
next in order of the voter's preference, and the ballots are counted for 
each continuing candidate. A candidate with an absolute majority of the 
valid votes is declared elected.

     3. In the absence of such an absolute majority, the counts 
continue.  After each count not resulting in an absolute majority, the 
candidate who has the fewest votes* is excluded, and each ballot counted 
to that candidate is transferred to the continuing candidate (i.e., the  
candidate neither elected nor excluded) next in order of the voter's 
preference, until one candidate has obtained an absolute majority of 
votes** and is elected.

     4. The procedure in electing a third or later candidate is 
similar to that described in B.1-3 above.


		*	In the case of a tie for the fewest votes, the same 
process is followed as in the previous footnote, except that the 
candidate with the fewest number of original first preferences, or 
original first plus second preferences, etc., is eliminated.  (This will 
mean that if the tie occurs at the end of the first count, a coin will 
necessarily be tossed.)  If after all other means have been exhausted 
three candidates remain tied for fewest votes, three coins, each 
representing a candidate, are tossed until there is only one head or one 
tail; the candidate represented by the one head or the one tail is then 
excluded.

		**	In the case of a tie at the end of the last count, 
i.e., if each candidate has received exactly half the total number of 
valid votes, the candidate with the largest number of original first 
preference votes is declared elected.  If the result still remains a 
tie, the candidate with the largest number of original first plus 
original second preferences is declared elected, and so on.  If at the 
end of this process the result is still a tie, the election is decided 
by a toss of a coin.

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